AP Sensing

  • Glosario
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X

A

The degree of distance of measurement results compared to its true value.

The confirmation cycle defines the number of confirmations before triggering an alarm.

Photonics are moved in high frequencies and correspond to rotational decompression. The difference between the Anti-stokes and Stokes signal is a measure of temperature.

The surveillance of man-made hoisting.

Amper Rating Temperature System.

Explosive area (ATEX stands for "explosive atmosphere")

The decrease in magnitude of power of a signal in transmission between points. A term used for expressing the total losses on an optical fiber consisting of the ratio of light output to light input. Attenuation is usually measured in decibels per kilometer (dB/km) at a specific wavelength. The lower the number, the better the fiber. Typical multimode wavelengths are 850 and 1300 nanometers (nm); single mode, at 1300 and 1550 nm. A typical attenuation of a 50/125um fiber at a wavelenght of 1064 is around 0.9 dB/km. When specifying attenuation, it is important to note if it is nominal or average, room temperature, value or maximum over operating range.

B

Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry. Brillouin light is one of the types of light that is reflected back to the optical source when light is transmitted through an optical fiber. Other types include Raman and Rayleigh light. B-OTDR analyses can be used to determine strain or temperature measurements. See also: OTDR, Coherent OTDR, Raman OTDR, Rayleigh scattering, Raman OFDR.

Measure of the information-carrying capacity of an optical fiber expressed as a unit of MHz-km.

Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry is a DTS system that can measure stress factors and temperature along any areas of a sensor cable.

Backscattered signal used for B-OTDR measurements to obtain strain and temperature measurements along an optical fiber.

Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry. Brillouin light is one of the types of light that is reflected back to the optical source when light is transmitted through an optical fiber. Other types include Raman and Rayleigh light. B-OTDR analyses can be used to determine strain or temperature measurements. See also: OTDR, Coherent OTDR, Raman OTDR, Rayleigh scattering, Raman OFDR.

C

Coherent Optical Time Domain Reflectometry. C-OTDR is used in some optical systems and is a variation of TDR (time domain reflectometry) in which the returned signal is mixed with a local oscillator and then filtered to reduce noise.

An area of extremely increased temperature in the cable. It is crucial for fiber optic based DTS (distributed temperature sensing) systems to detect hot spots rapidly and identify their location to the operators so that apprpriate actions can be taken.

Installations to hold cables especially used for large amounts or long cables.

Temperature scale in which 0 degrees and 100 degrees are the freezing and boiling temperatures for water, also known as centigrade.

Coherent Optical Time Domain Reflectometry. C-OTDR is used in some optical systems and is a variation of TDR (time domain reflectometry) in which the returned signal is mixed with a local oscillator and then filtered to reduce noise.

The confirmation cycle defines the number of confirmations before triggering an alarm.

Hardware installed on cable ends to provide physical and optical cable attachment to a transmitter / receiver or another cable. A junction that lets an optical fiber or cable to be repeatedly connected or disconnected to a device such as a source or detector. For DTS the standard optical connector is E2000 8° angled.

CRS

Cable Rating System.

CTM

Conductor Temperature Monitoring Module.

D

Dam

A barrier to prevent water from passing through. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solution for geological and hydrological applications can not only monitor the curing temperature and thermal parameters of concrete (including RCC, roller-compacted concrete), it can monitor the dam infrastructure as well as adjacent areas for leakage and seepage.

DAS

Distributed Acoustic Sensing. DAS systems, like DTS (Distributed Temperate Sensing) systems, employ fiber optic sensor cables to monitor and identify acoustic strain patterns in order to recognize potentially threatening events such as TPI (third-party interference) or leakage.

DCR

Dynamic Cable Rating (or alternatively RTTR, Real time thermal rating) makes use of steady-state and transient thermal analyses. Current loads are compared with estimates from the planning stage to generate predictive models and show how much the steady-state load can be increased. The network can operate at the highest possible safe ampacity level.

The standard unit used to express gain or loss of optical power.

Identifying unwanted situations.

The maximum distance along the sensor fiber (starting from the DTS unit) for which the DTS unit is designed to monitor.

DAS systems, like DTS (Distributed Temperate Sensing) systems, employ fiber optic sensor cables to monitor and identify acoustic strain patterns in order to recognize potentially threatening events such as TPI (third-party interference) or leakage.

A linear optical fiber, when combined with AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solutions, provides a precise, distributed heat sensor along the entire length of the sensor cable.

DVS systems, like DTS (Distributed Temperate Sensing) systems, employ fiber optic sensor cables to monitor and identify vibrations and vibration patterns in order to recognize potentially threatening events such as TPI (third-party interference) or leakage.

Downstream oil and gas processing refers to the refining, processing and purifying of these products, as well as the distribution methods, which generally use pipelines.

DRS

Dynamic Rating System.

DTS

Distributed Temperature Sensing.

DVS

Distributed Vibration Sensing. DVS systems, like DTS (Distributed Temperate Sensing) systems, employ fiber optic sensor cables to monitor and identify vibrations and vibration patterns in order to recognize potentially threatening events such as TPI (third-party interference) or leakage.

A natural or artificial wall or slope, to control water levels (also known as a levee). AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solution for geological and hydrological applications can monitor the levee infrastructure as well as adjacent areas for leakage and seepage.

DCR (or alternatively, RTTR, Real Time Thermal Rating) makes use of steady-state and transient thermal analyses. Current loads are compared with estimates from the planning stage to generate predictive models and show how much the steady-state load can be increased. The network can operate at the highest possible safe ampacity level.

The maximum two-way loss within the sensing fiber to and from the measured point for which the DTS unit is designed.

E

EN 54 is a required standard for fire detection and fire alarm systems. It specifies requirements and laboratory tests for every component of such systems. AP Sensing is fully certified with EN 54-5 (for outside of Europe) and EN 54-22 (for Europe), in addition to the rest of our industry-leading number of certifications (VdS, ATEX, FM, UL and ULC).

"Ex zone" indicates an explosive area. Many kinds of machinery and equipment, especially opto-electronics, may only be used in explosive environments with the proper certification. AP Sensing uses a low-powered laser source, which enables us to attain ATEX certification down to Zone 0.

The process of fighting a fire until the fire is out.

F

Temperature scale in which the freezing and boiling points of water are 32 degrees and 212 degrees.

A siren or other signal that is set off at the wrong time or as a test. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solutions have the industry's fastest fire detection and lowest false alarm rates, even in the most challenging environments (dust, dirt, humidity, EMI).

A Fiber Bragg grating is a physical reflector that is built into a short segment of fiber sensing cable. It reflects certain wavelengths and allows all others to pass. This can be useful as a filter function to block or reflect certain wavelengths.

FCP

Fire control panel.

Optical signal carrier; for DTS systems, the fiber acts as the sensor.

A fiber made of glass is used to transmit light -- the fiber can also be used as linear sensors. A thin wire of silica (silicon dioxide) is used to transmit optical information (e.g. laser pulses and backscatter) over long distances. It is an optical waveguide consisting of a core and a cladding to confine the light signals.

Discovering a fire and generating a alarm.

Instrument to monitor and survey areas where a fire could occur. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solution for the fire detections and special hazard market provides reliable asset protection, even in challenging environments (dirt, dust, humidity, EMI).

Describes the direction in which a fire is moving, for example stationary, or moving towards or away from the device. Particularly in tunnel applications, this information is very valuable to both the operators who can then take appropriate actions, and to the fire-fighting personnel who can use the information when they arrive on the scene.

Sensor cables that are filled with gels or liquids to ensure they perform in a wider range of conditions.

AP Sensing passed the strict testing procedures for Fire Detection and is certified for FM approval according to the Class 3210 Standard "Heat Detectors for Automatic Fire Alarm Signaling." By adding to our industry-leading set of tests and certifications (including UL and UL-C, CE, VdS, ATEX and SIL-2) the FM approval assures customers that our DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solutions for the Fire Detection and Special Hazards markets have been objectively tested and conform to national and international standards.

The number of cycles per unit of time, denoted by Hertz (Hz). Thus 1 Hz=1 cycle per second.

G

The complete value chain from extracting gas to selling gas (upstream, to the well head, and downstream, for refining and distribution).

Drilled hole used to access heat from the earth

A conductive connection with the earth.

H

Areas with difficult or dangerous environmental conditions, for example, dangerous gases or chemicals, or the risk of an explosion.

A device that measures or monitors increasing temperatures. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solutions use fiber optic based technology to determine the temperature and locations along the entire sensor cable.

An area of of extremely increased temperature, for example, along a power cable or a fire in a tunnel. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solutions quickly and precisely locate hotsopts and provide an accurate temperature profile every few seconds along the entire length of the sensor cable.

Hydro comes from the Greek language and means water. Hydrology is the study of water quality, movement and distribution. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solution can be applied in geological and hydrological monitoring applications to track water flow, aquifer and ground sstreams, leakage and seepage in dam infrastructures, or for research projects.

I

Additional loss in a system when a device such as a connector is inserted, equal to the difference in signal level between the input and output.

The number of traces that can be simultaneously kept in the internal memory of the DTS unit.

An international standard for quality assurance and processes. AP Sensing has the industry's most complete set of tests and certifications.

K

A unit of absolute temperature developed by Lord Kelvin.

L

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, a simulated source of radiation.

Unwanted loss of solids, liquids, or gases. In particular, AP Sensing's pipeline leakage detection systems and our Guardian™ solution can use complementary heat detection and acoustic sensing technologies to monitor above-ground or buried pipelines, heat-tracing pipelines and jetty pipelines for leakage detection and TPI (third party interference).

Identify the source of escaping solids, liquids or gases. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solution for the pipeline monitoring market additionally offers complementary acoustic sensing capabilities to ensure pipeline integrity, leakage detection, and TPI (third-party interference) protection.

Linear heat detection (LHD) is a method for detecting hot spots along a sensor cable. Different techniques include digital cables, analog cables, pressure tube sensors and, in the case of AP Sensing, fiber optic based distributed temperature sensors.

When liquefied natural gas (LNG) is extracted it is cooled to approximately -160°C to turn it into a liquid, which requires 1/600th of the volume of the gas state, for ease of tranportation and storage. At an LNG facility, the re-gasification terminal is where it is returned to its gaseous form, purified and typically stored in tanks in its liquid form for distribution. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solution for LNG applications also monitors for leakage detection along the pipelines, cool-down monitoring at the jetty, tank annulus leakage, base slab monitoring and spill containment area monitoring.

LNG

Liquefied Natural Gas: When liquefied natural gas (LNG) is extracted it is cooled to approximately -160°C to turn it into a liquid, which requires 1/600th of the volume of the gas state, for ease of tranportation and storage. At an LNG facility, the re-gasification terminal is where it is returned to its gaseous form, purified and typically stored in tanks in its liquid form for distribution. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solution for LNG applications also monitors for leakage detection along the pipelines, cool-down monitoring at the jetty, tank annulus leakage, base slab monitoring and spill containment area monitoring.

A laser source that requires very little power to send pulses, which has many advantages in DTS environments. AP Sensing uses OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometry) technology as its measurement principle (the other alternative for DTS systems is OFDR technology). Low-powered lasers have a longer life span and have lower laser safety classifications than the high-power lasers needed for OFDR systems. Low-power laser systems are inherently safer in explosive environments; some AP Sensing devices are certified for explosive environments, e.g., ATEX directive Zone 0.

M

The abbreviation for metropolitan, and is the name of many products and services relating to urban areas, in particular rapid transit rail systems. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solution for the fire detection and special hazard applications provides reliable asset protection even in the most challenging environments (dirt, dust, humidity, EMI), remaining functional up to 1000 °C.

Specifies the minimum spatial distance of two consecutive result points in the measured temperature profile.

MM

The abbreviation for multimode (fiber). The cores of multimode fiber (where the light is transported) are relatively large. They are generally used for shorter distances than singlemode fibers.

Surveillance of a selected area.

All of the components for surveillance, in particular for an AP Sensing DTS (distributed temperature sensing) or other distributed optical sensing system, typically to monitor temperature and/or acoustic signal to protect valuable infrastructures (train and traffic tunnels, HVDC / HVAC power cables, pipelines and LNG plants).

Mean Time Between Failures. The average amount of operating time between failures. AP Sensing is a market leader in terms of quality, reliability, MTBF and customer support.

MTR

Mass Transit Railway.

Optical fiber with typically 50 or 62.5 micrometres (µm) core and 125 micrometres (µm) cladding diameter, often abbreviated as MM. The cores of multimode fiber (where the light is transported) are relatively large. They are generally used for shorter distances than singlemode (SM) fibers.

N

A unit of measure equal to one billionth of a meter.

O

Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry, a process to analyze wavelength and characteristics. OFDR is an alternative method to OTDR. In order for OFDR measurements to be effective the backscatter signals detected during the entire measurement time are measured as a function of frequency in a complex fashion, and then subjected to Fourier transformation.

Upstream oil and gas is considered to be a process in the oil and gas industry (together with midstream and downstream) that includes searching for new fields, drilling exploratory wells, and recovering the oil, gas or LNG (liquefied natural gas). Typically the oil or gas is also processed, purified and made ready for distribution.

Improving the efficiency of oil and gas reservoir extraction and production. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solution for well and reservoir monitoring lets operators better manage reservoirs, wellbores and completions. Temperature profiles can be monitored thoughout the entire well or at user-selected locations.

The complete value chain of extracting oil to selling oil (upstream, to the well head and downstream. for distribution and refinery).

The humidity range in which the device (the DTS instrument, not the sensor cable) can measure accurately.

Environmental temperature range and humidity range of the DTS unit, within which the specifications apply.

The temperature range in with the device (the DTS unit, not the cable) can measure accurately.

Optical groundwire. A special wire that has a data transfer function in addition to the functions of a ground wire.

Industry standard is E2000 8° APC (angled polished connector).

An optical component that separates or connects a conduct line.

Optical Time Domain Reflectometry: an optical laser pulse propagating through the fiber sends scattered light back to the transmitting end, where it is analyzed. The position of the scatterd light (temperature reading) is determined by measuring the arrival timing of the returning light pulse, similar to a radar echo. AP Sensing employs OTDR technology, which is also the technology of choice for the telecoms industry, together with low-powered laser sources, for long product lives and the ability to use them in hazardous (explosive) areas.

A cable and conductor made from aluminum installed above ground

P

PD

Partial discharge.

The study of electromagnetic energy wherein the basic unit is the photon. The word photonics is a mixture of photon and electonics.

A cable to transport electricity. AP Sensing's power cable monitoring solutions ensure that operators of HVDC / HVAC networks, offshore windparks area cables, substation and transformer equipment, and offshore substation export cables (together with our RTTR, or real time thermal rating engine) can operate at the highest possible safe ampacity level.

Power transformers are used to increase or decrease voltages in electric power applications.

Transferring and allocating electricity. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperatue Sensing) solution for power cable monitoring, together with our RTTR (real time thermal rating, or DCR, Dynamic Cable Rating) engine lets operators monitor and protect their networks and operate them at the highest possible safe ampacity level.

Predefined actions to undertake in case an alarm occurs, e.g., traffic signaling, ventilation activation, or activating fire suppression systems.

R

Raman Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry. Raman scattering, or light scattering, occurs in the optical fibers. OTDR (Optical Time Domain Refelectometry) and OFDR (Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry) are the 2 main measurement principles for distributed sensing technology. The OTDR method, which is used by AP Sensing, was developed over 20 years ago and it is the standard used in the telecoms industry. It also means that low-powered laser sources can be used (compared to OFDR systems), so that the DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) devices can be used in hazardous or explosive areas. Alternative OFDR systems require much higher-powered lasers and need to use more complex algorithms to determine temperature and location. See also: OTDR, Raman, Coherent OTDR, B-OTDR.

Raman Optical Time Domain Reflectometry. Raman scattering, or light scattering, occurs in the optical fibers. OTDR (Optical Time Domain Refelectometry) and OFDR (Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry) are the 2 main measurement principles for distributed sensing technology. The OTDR method, which is used by AP Sensing, was developed over 20 years ago and it is the standard used in the telecoms industry. It also means that low-powered laser sources can be used (compared to OFDR systems), so that the DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) devices can be used in hazardous or explosive areas. Alternative OFDR systems require much higher-powered lasers and need to use more complex algorithms to determine temperature and location. See also: OTDR, Raman, Coherent OTDR, B-OTDR.

Real-Time Ampacity Estimation System.

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist and Nobel laureate in physics recognised for his work on the molecular scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect, which is named after him.

Named for the Indian physicist C.V Raman, who first published observations of this effect in 1928. It describes how light wavelengths are changed when they are deflected by molecules. With AP Sensing's use of OTDR technique an optical laser pulse propagating through the fiber sends scattered light (reflected from the silicon of the fiber) back to the transmitting end, where it is analyzed. The intensity of the Raman signals is a measure for the temperature along the fiber.

Raman Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry. Raman scattering, or light scattering, occurs in the optical fibers. OTDR (Optical Time Domain Refelectometry) and OFDR (Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry) are the 2 main measurement principles for distributed sensing technology. The OTDR method, which is used by AP Sensing, was developed over 20 years ago and it is the standard used in the telecoms industry. It also means that low-powered laser sources can be used (compared to OFDR systems), so that the DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) devices can be used in hazardous or explosive areas. Alternative OFDR systems require much higher-powered lasers and need to use more complex algorithms to determine temperature and location. See also: OTDR, Raman, Coherent OTDR, B-OTDR.

Raman Optical Time Domain Reflectometry. Raman scattering, or light scattering, occurs in the optical fibers. OTDR (Optical Time Domain Refelectometry) and OFDR (Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry) are the 2 main measurement principles for distributed sensing technology. The OTDR method, which is used by AP Sensing, was developed over 20 years ago and it is the standard used in the telecoms industry. It also means that low-powered laser sources can be used (compared to OFDR systems), so that the DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) devices can be used in hazardous or explosive areas. Alternative OFDR systems require much higher-powered lasers and need to use more complex algorithms to determine temperature and location. See also: OTDR, Raman, Coherent OTDR, B-OTDR.

Reflections with the wavelength of the laser source.

When liquefied natural gas (LNG) is extracted it is cooled to approximately -160°C to turn it into a liquid, which requires 1/600th of the volume of the gas state, for ease of tranportation and storage. At an LNG facility, the re-gasification terminal is where it is returned to its gaseous form, purified and typically stored in tanks in its liquid form for distribution. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solution for LNG applications also monitors for leakage detection along the pipelines, cool-down monitoring at the jetty, tank annulus leakage, base slab monitoring and spill containment area monitoring.

RTTR (or alternatively, DCR, Dynamic Cable Rating) makes use of steady-state and transient thermal analyses. Current loads are compared with estimates from the planning stage to generate predictive models and show how much the steady-state load can be increased. The network can operate at the highest possible safe ampacity level.

Facility to improve the quality of materials by cleaning and removing unwanted substances, typically for petroleum oil, natural gas or LNG (liquefied natural gas).

ROV crafts that are telecommanded, especially used underwater in the oil and gas industries.

The ability to obtain consistent measurement results under unchanged conditions.

Surveillance of oil and gas fields, dams. dykes, and underground water sources.

Improving the efficiency of oil and gas reservoir extraction and production. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solution for well and reservoir monitoring lets operators better manage reservoirs, wellbores and completions. Temperature profiles can be monitored thoughout the entire well or at user-selected locations.

The smallest change that can be distinguished with a measurement.

The ability to maintain performance despite harsh or changing conditions.

Remotely operated vehicles.

Real time thermal rating. RTTR (or alternatively, DCR, Dynamic Cable Rating) makes use of steady-state and transient thermal analyses. Current loads are compared with estimates from the planning stage to generate predictive models and show how much the steady-state load can be increased. The network can operate at the highest possible safe ampacity level.

S

Steam assisted gravity drainage. Water vapors are pressed into a well or reservoir to facilitate the extraction of oil or gas.

Spread reflection, in particular light scattering occurs when light rays are deflected from a straigh path.

Leakage water surveillance. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solution for geological and hydrological applications is ideally suited for aquifier and ground water stream monitoring, analysis of thermal stress in dams and dykes, providing excellent subsurface visualization.

Fiber Optic – Linear Heat Detection – LTS 200 / LTS 240 Sensor Control Unit. Instruments are comparable to AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) devices. In cases where AP Sensing has replaced these devices, the AP Sensing device was able to work with installed sensor cables and was easily integrated into the previous SCADA and IT systems.

A device that measures a physical quality and converts it into a signal that can be read by an instrument. For example, AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) devices work together with fiber optic sensor cables to analyze back-scattered laser light to determine temperature and interpret acoustic signals along the entire length of the cable.

Specifies the measurable temperature range of the particular type of optical fiber being used as a sensor.

A suddenly and dramatic change of condition or parameters.

The slope width is defined as the spatial distance between the measured 10% and 90% levels of the slope, with 0% and 100% being the stationary temperature levels before or after the step

SM

Singlemode (fiber). Compared to multimode fiber, singlemode fiber has a relatively small core (where the light is transported) and is more often used for longer distances.

Specifies the slope width of a measured step temperature profile (rising or falling)

Special sensor cables designed for more extreme conditions, e.g., very low or very high temperatures, with gel or liquid fillings, or steel or aluminum casings.

A housing to protect a fusion-spliced fiber.

In a DTS temperature measurement, the standard deviation statistics are based on an ambient temperature evenly distributed over the operating temperature range, and a sensing fiber temperature evenly distributed over the sensing fiber temperature range, over the measurements "i" (the index of a sufficiently large sample).

The technology in which the scattered oscillations go in the opposite direction as the conducting ray.

Photonics are moved in low frequencies and correspond to rotational stimulation. The difference between the Anti-stokes and Stokes signal is a measure of temperature.

Measureing stress or expansion along an optical sensor fiber.

Surveillance of structures and the condition of facilities to detect damages.

Cable installations underwater to transport electrical current. AP Sensing's DTS (distributed temperature sensing) sytems are ideally suited for monitoring subsea applications.

T

Specifies the variations in the measured temperature at points along the sensor cable held at uniform temperature. Temperature resolution TRes is calculated as: TRes = StDevtrue,i{ Hi }. The temperature resolution is defined as standard deviation over distance.

Test

Continuous monitoring and analyzing of results and data, especially with regard to AP Sensing's fiber-optic based distributed optical sesnsing solutions.

Visualization of temperature conditions in, for example, oil wells, geothermal wells or within industrial processes.

An electrical device that can act as a temperature sensor. Thermocouple are most widely used in certain industrial processes or in thermostats. For large infrastructures they do not have the accuracy, reliability, durability, immunity to dust, dirt, EMI and humidity when compared to DTS (Distributed Temperaure Sensing) devices.

Transport facility underneath the ground. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solutions for the fire detection and special hazard markets offer reliable asset protection in train and traffic tunnels, even in the most challenging environments (dirt, dust, humidity, EMI).

U

A UL certification ensures customers that our DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solutions have been objectively tested to ensure physical and environmental safety for our customers. The UL certification adds to our industry-leading set of tests and certifications (including UL-C, CE, VdS, FM, ATEX and SIL-2).

A UL-C certification ensures Canadian customers that our DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solutions have been objectively tested to ensure physical and environmental safety for our customers. The UL-C certification adds to our industry-leading set of tests and certifications (including UL, CE, VdS, FM, ATEX and SIL-2).

Buried cables, especially high voltage transmission and distribution power cables.

The process within of oil and gas production that involves the extraction of oil and gas from the earth; the hydraulic engineering.

Tunnels for power distribution, typically used in cities. AP Sensing's DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) solution for power cable monitoring lets you monitor and protect your power infrastructure in utility tunnels, HVDC /HVAC underground power cables, joints and terminations and in subsea and substation equipment.

V

VdS

An international organization for safety and security. which tests and certifies products in the fire detection and safety market.

A large craft made for navigation on water.

Continuous oscillation

W

A parameter of the light wave. It is the distance (in meters) between two adjacent peaks in a wave.

X

XLPE stands for cross-linked polyethylene, which is widely used to insulate medium- and high-voltage power cables.